The Effects of Obesity on Pulmonary Mechanics and Walking Capacity in Young Females: A control pilot study
Eleni A. Kortianou, Adonis G. Konstantinou, Anastasia Tsagari, Spiros Piperakis
Obesity is associated with premature death and increases the risk of a number of diseases. It is also well documented that and it may affect pulmonary mechanics and exercise capacity; however little is known for walking ability and pulmonary mechanics in young obese females. The purpose of this study was to assess exercise tolerance and pulmonary mechanics in young females with obesity. Ten obese females (BMI: 38.5±4.4 Kg/m2) and 10 controls (BMI: 21.4±1.8 Kg/m2), aged 18-25 years, performed spirometry and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) according to American Thoracic Society recommendations. All participants were non-smokers and they had the same low levels of physical activity as demonstrated by the IPAQ-Gr questionnaire. Females with obesity presented lower FVC (3.1±0.2L vs 3.5±0.2L, p<.01); ERV (1.2±0.03L vs 1.3±0.01L, p<.05) and VC (3.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.1L, p<.05) They also covered significantly smaller walking distance compared to the control group (562 m vs 649 respectively, p<.001). The obese group had higher heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after the 6MWT (p<.01) when compared to the control group. Our first set of data suggest that obesity impairs young females? exercise capacity and pulmonary mechanics, decreasing their FVC, VC and ERV. This aspect is important due to the currently increased prevalence of obesity in young people.
The Effectiveness Of Exercise On Water In Fibromyology Syndrome
Anna Christakou, Olga Zachariudaki
Physiotherapy is often used in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The present systematic review examines the effectiveness of exercise on water in fibromyalgia. MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, PsyINFO without any age limit were used. Specific criteria were used to decide the eligibility of the studies for further examination. In total, fourteen experimental randomized studies were included in this study. The PEDro scale was used to investigate the methodological quality of the included studies and has yielded seven of moderate and seven of high methodological quality, respectively. Mean methodological quality was 6.79/10. The results of theses studies showed a median to high positive effect of water exercise on fibromyalgia?s syndrome. Due to review?s limitations, recommendations for further research are proposed to investigate the effectiveness of water exercise on the rehabilitation of fibromyalgia?s syndrome
Fractures of the Upper Femur: Classification and Causing Mechanisms
Sophia Stasi, George Papathanasiou
Fractures of the upper femur in elderly adults are a major health problem with serious financial, social and psychological consequences. In the present review these fractures are described and categorized. Their healing process is of particular interest because both aging and osteoporosis have a negative effect on the mechanical and biological factors associated with it. These two are considered major pathogenetic factors, as they have a negative influence on bone density and on bone?s mechanical strength. Important predictors of fractures in the upper femur are, amongst others, the thinning of cortical bone, the attenuation of connectivity of the trabecular systems of cancellous bone at sites of interest, for example at Ward?s triangle in the upper femur. Singh?s Index is a radiographic tool which discriminates between the morphological & mechanical properties of the trabecular systems in the upper femur. Fracture risk is calculated upon co-evaluation of Singh?s Index with THBMD and other local mineral density measurements of interest. The above combination improves hip fracture prediction and provides a fuller insight of the effects of osteoporosis on the upper femur region. Overall, examination of the relationship between femur geometric characteristics with the fracture type is important for the understanding low-energy fracture mechanics and for the assessment of the risk of future hip fracture in younger individuals.
Current Evidence οn Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy. Critical Appraisal οn the Effectiveness of Mulligan? s MWM
Lateral elbow tendinopathy is one of the most frequently diagnosed clinical dysfunctions in upper-extremity with complex etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. For the clinical management of the condition numerous treatments have been reported. However, there is recent evidence to suggest Mulligan?s mobilization with movement-lateral glide (MWM) as a successful physiotherapeutic approach addressing not only patients? physical impairments but also influences central neural processing. Mulligan?s MWMs have demonstrated increase in ROM and pain relief in musculoskeletal disorders. For the elbow joint in specific, lateral glide produces substantial analgesia and enhances functional tasks such as grip force. However, the mechanism of action of MWMs has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of this study is to present recent evidence on the effectiveness of MWMs in treating the condition.