Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Techniques: Do they Have a Place in the Rehabilitation after a Cerebrovascular Accident?
The cerebrovascular accident poses a serious threat for the development of disability. The central nervous system through mechanisms of reorganization (plasticity) displays the capacity for partial restoration of the functionality of the affected areas. The application of stimulation techniques to the brain, invasive or not, to the site of the lesion or to the respective healthy site, once or repeatedly, seems that it may have favourable effects for the restoration of the function of the affected areas and the rehabilitation of the patient after a CVA.
Paraskevi Malliou, E. Germanou, A. Mpeneka, G. Godiolas
The aim of the present review was to investigate the nature of risk factors for the appearance of osteoarthritis in sports participation, so that to help individuals who participate in athl&ic activities to minimize the risk of degeneration of their joints. Exercise, when it is applied rightly, does not cause degenerative alterations in the articular surfaces of joints, but the risk for the appearance of osteoarthritis is mainly related with the conditions of repeated percussion of articular surfaces that have as a consequence their injury. That is to say, development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis in athl&es is usually a result of degeneration of joint articular surfaces, which is caused by repeated damages of articular cartilage. It is concluded that the nature of sports, the intensity of training and the type of developing forces that strain joints, the existence of previous injury, the anatomic structure and function of joints and body weight should be taken into consideration in order to evaluate the risk for the development of osteoarthritis. It is suggested to evaluate joint structure and function as well as muscular strength and neuro-muscular function before participating in any physical activity. For the individuals with a history of joint injuries or mild osteoarthritis, it is suggested to choose physical activities that present minimal risk for acceleration of joint degeneration and to strengthen muscles that surround the affected joints.